The Oncofood mission revealed some expectations of most cancers sufferers relating to new meals options.

Most cancers is among the many main causes of loss of life worldwide. In accordance to the International Most cancers Observatory, in 2018 there have been 18.1 million new instances and 9.5 million cancer-related deaths worldwide.1
One of many foremost challenges for most cancers sufferers present process therapy is stopping or mitigating malnutrition. Most cancers-related malnutrition is extremely prevalent in sufferers present process most cancers therapy, various from eight to 84 p.c, depending on most cancers website and stage.2 Nonetheless, not all sufferers endure from malnutrition, however most expertise a discount of their day by day meals consumption as they usually have antagonistic unwanted side effects (eg, style loss, dangerous style in mouth, metallic style, sores in mouth, vomiting, lack of urge for food and dysphagia).3
Poor dietary standing throughout most cancers therapy weakens the affected person and makes the administration of an acceptable therapy tough, resulting in an elevated size of hospital keep, diminished therapy tolerance and elevated therapy unwanted side effects.4 The prognosis for most cancers sufferers with weight reduction is worse than for weight-stable sufferers.
The present medical diet market affords totally different oral dietary assist merchandise, but these fail to deal with the pleasure of consuming, or sufferers’ meals preferences.
Most cancers therapies’ unwanted side effects
Style and scent alterations are a well-recognised explanation for decreased meals consumption and are reported as being one of the vital distressing unwanted side effects of most cancers therapy, together with fatigue, nausea, vomiting and hair loss. They’re ceaselessly noticed in oncological sufferers present process each radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

Entry to quite a lot of enticing meals merchandise is proscribed for oncological sufferers.

The self-reported alterations in most cancers sufferers present process chemotherapy are excessive, ranging between 45 and 84 p.c for modifications in style, and fluctuate in accordance with the kind of most cancers and chemotherapy routine.5
Chemosensory alterations embrace a discount in scent and style sensitivity, an absence of style sensation (ageusia), and distortion of regular style (dysgeusia) or a style notion with out an exterior stimulus (phantogeusia).
Different medical situations resembling dysphagia, dry mouth, mucositis or nausea are additionally ceaselessly skilled. Dysphagia is outlined as ‘any disruption within the swallowing course of throughout bolus transport from the oral cavity to the abdomen’ and is extra widespread for these with head and neck cancers. Most cancers development, significantly within the mouth, throat or oesophagus, might slender these passages and create swallowing difficulties.6
3D-printed salmon purées (left) in comparison with common puree (proper)
The present marketplace for oncological sufferers
Entry to quite a lot of enticing meals merchandise is proscribed for oncological sufferers. The present medical diet market affords totally different choices for sufferers beneath threat of malnutrition, that are primarily meals dietary supplements or oral dietary assist merchandise. Oral dietary assist merchandise are used when sufferers are mildly malnourished or, conversely, are in good situation however are candidates for a doubtlessly poisonous oncological remedy. They are designed to deal with sufferers’ dietary necessities and are often high-energy-density merchandise added to meals. The vary of merchandise is sort of restricted, with milkshakes, soups, purees, or texture-modified merchandise being probably the most consultant examples.
The medical diet market measurement was valued at round $33 billion in 2019 and is anticipated to expertise development of over 5.3 p.c CAGR from 2020 to 2027.7 Some key components propelling the expansion of the market embrace the growing prevalence of metabolic problems, excessive spending on healthcare and the rise of center courses in rising economies.
There are main gamers within the medical diet market, however presently, no meals merchandise particularly focused at most cancers sufferers within the meals retail sector.
ONCOFOOD: a consumer-centred method
ONCOFOOD is an innovation mission funded by EIT Meals (European Institute of Innovation and Expertise, European Union) and consists of a consortium of European corporations, universities and expertise centres (AZTI, College of Warsaw, College of Studying, Maspex and Pure Machines).
This mission proposes the design and growth of a variety of recent meals options addressing dietary, sensorial and texture necessities to advertise the pleasure of consuming and stop malnutrition in oncological sufferers. These options have been designed in consideration of sufferers’ opinions and examined for his or her acceptability by the goal group for the profitable growth of tailor-made options.

“The analysis revealed that dietary composition is necessary for most cancers sufferers and caregivers.

As product improvements usually fail because of the mismatch between product growth and shopper expectations and desires, the mission was accompanied by a posh collection of shopper analysis actions. These included: (i) qualitative research to analyze sufferers’ meals obstacles, wants and expectations in direction of new meals merchandise and an preliminary evaluation of a set of recent product ideas; and (ii) quantitative research, the place developed prototypes have been examined by sufferers to judge their sensory traits and acceptability earlier than being launched to the market.
The qualitative examine was performed in three nations (Spain, Poland and UK), by particular person in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, with a complete of 53 respondents together with sufferers, ex-patients, caregivers and healthcare professionals.
The analysis revealed that dietary composition is necessary for most cancers sufferers and caregivers. They give the impression of being rigorously on the listing of components of each product they purchase; specializing in these with no added sugar and which might be pure whereas remaining pleasurable. Meals turns into a part of the therapeutic course of and is perceived as drugs.
3D-printed salmon purée with pink and inexperienced pepper.Design impressed by Matisse’s algae
Most cancers sufferers from all three nations expressed their dissatisfaction with the present market providing. There may be an consciousness of the few merchandise obtainable, however these have been related to being unwell and in dangerous situation.
Sufferers need a wider vary of flavours, tastes and choices to select from; there’s a want for meals with a savoury style moderately than candy (presently obtainable in the marketplace).
Our findings additionally revealed that merchandise for oncological sufferers needs to be handy. Most sufferers and caregivers are often absorbed by all of the unwanted side effects of the sickness on a affected person’s life and don’t have the time to arrange sophisticated meals. Meals needs to be straightforward to retailer and put together at any time; not just for use at
house, but in addition for consuming on the go.Merchandise that may be eaten with little preparation and in small handy packages, allow sufferers to expertise the social operate of meals, which may be restricted; for instance, they usually can’t eat what’s served in eating places or at different social occasions.
Options
Contemplating the findings on the buyer research for most cancers sufferers, Polish-based meals firm, Maspex, proposed the event of fruit and vegetable snacks in pouch pack format. These usually are not a brand new answer, however the thought of setting optimum components into a light-weight and sensible format is a novelty within the oncological subject.
Maspex (through fruit juice firm Tymbark) has in depth expertise in and a large portfolio of these sorts of pouches for various age teams. For most cancers sufferers, the formulation have been tailored with particular dietary necessities (protein, carbohydrates, nutritional vitamins and minerals) and style wants in thoughts. These merchandise comprise greens, fruits, groats, oatmeal, rice and even yoghurt. The good benefits of those are the pure origin of the components, optimum dietary values and comfort, in addition to being microbiologically protected to eat.
Then again, for these sufferers experiencing dysphagia or needing a gentle food plan, Pure Machines proposed a variety of 3D-printed meals and snacks utilizing a number of puréed pure components and recipes particularly tailored for dietary necessities and texturised for dysphagia (degree 4, IDDSI framework).
The corporate developed and manufactured an modern 3D meals printer named Foodini. The usage of the 3D food-printing expertise, and significantly Foodini, gives further advantages for each the healthcare professionals (in hospitals and healthcare centre environments) and the top‑person (affected person). Firstly, it affords a extra personalised answer tailored for every affected person’s wants. Secondly, in comparison with puréed meals, the 3D-printed meals affords the likelihood to separate totally different components inside the dish, permitting the affected person to tell apart between totally different flavours launched in a number of layers. Thirdly, it improves the looks of meals, avoiding the monotonous puréed meals, which primarily based on the outcomes from our shopper evaluation, is a vital ingredient and similar to style. In this case, the brand new 3D designs have been impressed, amongst others, by inventive designs such because the silhouette of Frida Kahlo’s face.
Conclusion
New modern meals options aimed toward these with most cancers have to be designed contemplating not solely their dietary wants however their sensory necessities. They need to assist alleviate signs, stop malnutrition and promote the pleasure of consuming, to assist encourage a greater high quality of life. Moreover, these merchandise needs to be tasty, pure and handy. One modern answer for these in want of texture-modified diets lies in 3D-printed meals. 
References
Globocan (2018). The International Most cancers Observatory (GCO) – IARC worldwide company for Analysis in Most cancers, WHO
Stratton RJ, Inexperienced CJ, Elia M (2004). Illness-Associated Malnutrition: An-Based mostly Strategy To Therapy. CAB Worldwide, Wallingford, UK
Cohen J, Wakefield CE, Laing DG (2016). Odor and style problems ensuing from most cancers and chemotherapy. Curr PharmDes, 22:2253–2263
Bozzetti F. (2013). Dietary assist of the oncology affected person. Crit Rev Oncol/Hematol, 87:172–200
Amézaga J, Alfaro B, Ríos Y, Larraioz A, Ugartemendia G, Urruticoechea A, Tueros I. (2018). Assessing style and scent alterations in most cancers sufferers present process chemotherapy in accordance with therapy. Assist Care Most cancers, 26(12):4077-4086
Gaziano JE. (2002). Analysis and administration of oropharyngeal Dysphagia in head and neck most cancers. Most cancers Management, 9(5):400-409
International Medical Diet Market Measurement examine, by Route of Administration (Oral, Enteral, Parenteral), by Software (Most cancers, Neurological Ailments, Gastrointestinal Problems, Metabolic Problems, Others), by Finish-Person (Pediatric, Adults, Geriatric) and Regional Forecasts 2020-2027. Report ID: MSR2854734, July 30, 2020