[Photographs: J. Kenji López-Alt. Video: Serious Eats Video]
Need extra motion and fewer discuss? Soar on to our fast and soiled information to brining and dry brining if you wish to get straight into the kitchen with out the science lecture.
Let me begin this off by saying that I do not brine my meat. Ever. Not for Thanksgiving, not for my Sunday supper, and definitely not for a fast weeknight meal. This submit is concerning the explanation why.
It appears to me that, as not too long ago as 15 years in the past, dry turkey was a given. The yearly Thanksgiving ritual at my household’s desk didn’t embrace any ill-mannered offspring crying out, “DAAAAaaaad, Mother ruined the turkey once more”—turkey wasn’t one thing that might be ruined. It was dry, powerful, and stringy, and that was a truth of life.
Then, a couple of decade in the past, brining entered the scene.* Due to an in a single day soak in a saltwater answer, gone have been the times of dry breast meat and further servings of gravy. I, for one, welcomed our new moist-breasted overlords. Even my mom might throw a turkey within the oven and pull out one thing remotely edible a couple of hours later. It was positively magical!
* Or, extra precisely, the method that had been identified to massive swaths of the populated world, together with China and Scandinavia, for millennia lastly made inroads into North America’s vacation menu.
Today, all people and their grandmother (higher often called the everyday Thanksgiving gathering) has heard of brining, and increasingly of us are doing it at dwelling earlier than Turkey Day. But it surely’s not all pie and gravy. There are a couple of distinct and particular downsides to moist brining, and many of us are making the change to dry brining (a.ok.a. prolonged salting). The query is, which methodology works greatest?

How Brining Works
Earlier than we get too far forward of ourselves, let’s do a fast recap on brining fundamentals. The fundamental course of includes soaking meat (often lean meats, like turkey, rooster, or pork chops) in a bath stuffed with closely salted water in a single day. Most brines are within the vary of 5 to eight% salt to water by weight. Over the course of the night time, the meat absorbs a few of that water. Extra importantly, that water stays put even after the meat is cooked. By brining meat, you possibly can lower the quantity of whole moisture loss by 30 to 40%.
To exhibit, I cooked three an identical turkey breasts in a 300°F (150°C) oven to an inside temperature of 145°F (63°C). One was brined, the opposite was soaked in a single day in plain water, and the final was left alone. All three breasts got here from non-kosher, non-enhanced birds (i.e., the birds have been pure, having obtained no therapy after slaughter). I charted their weight straight from the package deal, after brining, and after cooking.

As you possibly can see, each the chook soaked in brine and the chook soaked in water gained a major quantity of weight previous to roasting, however whereas the watered chook misplaced almost all of that weight because it cooked, the brined chook retained an excellent deal extra. This corresponded to a juicier texture on consuming. So what is going on on right here?
Some publications attribute all of it to osmosis—the tendency for water to maneuver throughout a membrane from an space of low solute focus to an space of excessive solute focus. On this case, water strikes from the brining vessel (low solute focus) to the within of the turkey’s cells (the place there are many proteins, minerals, and different enjoyable organic goodies dissolved within the water).
This idea is, in truth, inaccurate. If it have been true, then soaking a turkey in pure, unsalted water ought to be simpler than soaking it in a brine, and we have already seen that that’s not the case. Furthermore, in case you soak a turkey in a ridiculously concentrated brine (I examined turkey in a 35% salt answer), based on the osmosis idea, it ought to dry out much more.
Nonetheless, I discovered that regardless of turning the turkey inedibly salty, a extremely concentrated 35% salt answer was simply as efficient at serving to a turkey retain moisture as a extra reasonable 6% salt answer, indicating that the osmosis idea is totally bunk.
To know what’s actually taking place, it’s a must to have a look at the construction of turkey muscle mass. Muscle tissues are made up of lengthy, bundled fibers, each housed in a troublesome protein sheath. Because the turkey heats, the proteins that make up this sheath will contract. Similar to whenever you squeeze a tube of toothpaste, this causes juices to be compelled out of the chook. Warmth them to a lot above 150°F (66°C) or so, and you find yourself with dry, stringy meat.
Salt helps mitigate this shrinkage by dissolving a few of the muscle proteins (primarily myosin). The muscle fibers loosen up, permitting them to soak up extra moisture, and, extra importantly, they do not contract as a lot once they cook dinner, making certain that extra of that moisture stays in place because the turkey cooks.
Sounds nice, proper? However there is a catch.
The Issues With Brining
There are two main issues with brining. First off, it is a main ache within the butt. Not solely does it require that you’ve a vessel large enough to submerge a whole turkey (frequent choices are a cooler, an enormous bucket, or a few layers of professional quality rubbish bag, tied along with hopes and prayers in opposition to breakage), however it requires that you just maintain the whole lot inside it—the turkey and the brine—chilly for your entire course of. For an additional-large chook, this may be a few days, which means that you’ve got both given up utilizing the primary compartment of your fridge on the time of 12 months that you just most wish to use it, or that you just maintain a continuing provide of ice packs or ice rotating to maintain that chook chilly.
Second, brining robs your chook of taste. Give it some thought: Your turkey is absorbing water, and holding on to it. That implies that that additional 30 to 40% financial savings in moisture loss would not actually come within the type of turkey juices—it is plain outdated faucet water. Many of us who eat brined birds have that very criticism: It is juicy, however the juice is watery.
I’ve seen a variety of options (options, get it? haha) provided for this downside, so I made a decision to check all of them out aspect by aspect.
Brining Options
By far the most typical different is obvious outdated salting. Whenever you salt a turkey (or rooster) breast, meat juices are initially drawn out by way of the method of osmosis (sure, this time it truly is osmosis at work). Because the salt dissolves in these juices, it kinds what quantities to a really concentrated brine, which then permits it to interrupt down muscle proteins. The loosened muscle fibers permit the juices to get reabsorbed, this time taking the salt alongside for the experience.
Via this course of—osmosis, dissolving, reabsorbing—the salt will slowly work its method into the meat.
I’ve additionally heard folks ask the very apparent query: If brining introduces bland, boring faucet water into the chook, why not brine in a extra flavorful answer?
Why not, certainly? I made a decision to search out out.
With so many strategies to check aspect by aspect, it turned impractical to attempt to roast turkey breasts concurrently. As an alternative, I roasted 24 rooster breasts in 4 completely different batches of six, averaging out the information throughout the batches. Whereas rooster will not be precisely turkey, the 2 are comparable sufficient that outcomes for one ought to correlate to outcomes for the opposite.
Here is what I attempted:
Breast #1: plain (untreated)
Breast #2: brined in a single day in a 6% salt answer
Breast #3: closely salted in a single day
Breast #4: brined in a single day in rooster broth with a 6% salt content material
Breast #5: brined in a single day in cider with a 6% salt content material
Breast #6: soaked in a single day in plain water
Breasts #1 and #6 have been included as a management to make sure that the brine and salt options have been behaving as anticipated, in addition to a method of evaluating how intently the information would mirror that of the turkey breasts.
Here is what occurred with breasts #1, #2, #3, and #6 (plain, brined, salted, and water-soaked).

As anticipated, the brined rooster breasts held on to considerably extra moisture than both the plain rooster breasts or the water-soaked rooster breasts. Certainly, on this take a look at, the water-soaked breasts really ended up drier on common than the plain breasts. Check out the carnage:
Dry because the Gobi Desert (on an admittedly very-moist-for-a-desert day).
Alternatively, check out the brined breast:
As plump and juicy as a benevolent aunt in a Disney movie. Tasting it, you undoubtedly really feel a case of wet-sponge syndrome. Water comes out of it as you chew, providing you with the phantasm of juiciness, however the texture is just a little too unfastened, and the flavour just a little bland.
Transferring on to the salted breast, we discover that it is nonetheless considerably moister than the unsalted breast (although it was a few share factors drier than the brined breast). Tasting it, you may discover it is undoubtedly juicier and better-seasoned, with a stronger rooster taste. Texture-wise, it is considerably completely different from each plain and brined turkey, with the graceful, dense-but-tender texture of flippantly cured meat.
Visually, you possibly can see clear indicators of this curing with its decidedly pink hue:
With a small rooster breast, this pink, moist, cured part extends almost to the middle of the breast. On a turkey, you’d see it solely across the outer edges (which, serendipitously, occur to be the components most liable to overcooking and drying out anyway).
Whereas the brined breast was barely juicier, flavor-wise and texture-wise, I would take the salted rooster over the brined any day.
What Concerning the Flavored Brines?
First off, do not attempt to brine your turkey or rooster in cider (or every other acidic marinade, for that matter). Do not do it. Simply do not. The acid within the cider will kick off the denaturization course of within the meat, successfully “cooking” it with out warmth. The outcomes? Extremely-dry meat, with a wrinkled, utterly desiccated exterior, like this:
Extra fascinating have been the outcomes of the broth-soaked rooster. It looks like the final word answer, proper? If brining forces bland water into your meat, why not exchange that water with flavorful broth?
Sadly, physics is a fickle mistress who refuses to be reined in. Once I tasted the broth-soaked rooster subsequent to the plain brine-soaked rooster, there was barely a noticeable distinction in taste in any respect. The broth-soaked rooster nonetheless had the identical hallmarks of an everyday brined chook (juicy/moist texture, blander taste). What the heck was happening?
There are two ideas at work right here. The primary is that, whereas broth is a pure liquid to the bare eye, broth really consists of water with an unlimited array of dissolved solids in it that contribute to its taste. Most of those flavorful molecules are natural compounds which might be comparatively massive in dimension—on a molecular scale, that’s—whereas salt molecules are fairly small. So, whereas salt can simply go throughout the semipermeable membranes that make up the cells in animal tissue, bigger molecules can not.**
** Good factor, too; in any other case, you would be leaking proteins and minerals out of your physique each time you took a shower.
Moreover, there’s an impact known as salting out, which happens in water-based options containing each proteins and salt. Consider a cup of broth as a school dance occasion populated with cheerleaders (the water—let’s name them the Pi Delta Pis), nerds (the proteins—we’ll confer with them because the Lambda Lambda Lambdas), and jocks (the salt—clearly the Alpha Betas).***
*** I make no specs as to the gender and sexual preferences of mentioned lessons of people, however for the sake of this analogy, allow us to assume that nerds and jocks usually are not attracted to one another and that cheerleaders entice each nerds and jocks.
Now, at a very jock-free occasion, the nerds even have a shot on the cheerleaders, and find yourself commingling with them, forming a homogeneous combine. Open up the gymnasium doorways, and some of these cheerleaders will go away the occasion, taking a couple of nerds alongside for the experience. Sadly, these gymnasium doorways are locked shut, and the one of us robust sufficient to open them are the jocks. So what occurs whenever you let some jocks into that occasion?
The cheerleaders, who have been initially nice socializing with the nerds, will rapidly and selectively flock to the jocks. The nerds find yourself discovering one another, huddling into small teams, and twiddling their thumbs. When the jocks lastly go to bust the gymnasium doorways open on the finish of the occasion, they go away hand in hand with the cheerleaders, leaving the nerds within the mud. In our unhappy story, these Tri-Lambs by no means get their revenge.
The very same factor is going on in a broth-based brine. Water molecules are interested in salt ions and can selectively work together with them. The poor proteins, in the meantime, are left with solely one another, and find yourself forming massive mixture teams, which makes it even tougher for them to get into the meat. When the salt breaks down muscle fibers sufficiently to permit the uptake of water (the equal of our jocks breaking down these doorways), loads of water and salt will get into the meat, however little or no protein does.****
The end result? Until you are utilizing an extra-concentrated home made inventory, the quantity of flavorful compounds that make it inside your rooster or turkey may be very, very restricted. Given the quantity of inventory you’d want to make use of to submerge a turkey, this does not seem to be a really sensible transfer.
**** This phenomenon is utilized in biology to take away particular undesirable proteins from options. As extra salt is added to an answer, proteins will type bigger and bigger aggregates, till they’re ultimately massive sufficient to be seen to the bare eye and precipitate out of the answer. These proteins can then be eliminated with centrifugation. By realizing the salt focus that causes completely different proteins to precipitate, scientists can goal particular proteins to be eliminated, whereas retaining the remaining in answer. The surplus salt can then be eliminated through dialysis (primarily microscopic straining).
So What Does This Imply for My Turkey?
That is all nicely and good, however what does it imply? How do you apply it?
Nicely, let me finish how I began: I do not brine my birds, as a result of I like my birds to style like birds, not like watered-down birds. Salting your meat is sort of as efficient at stopping moisture loss, and the flavour good points are noticeable. Need to know the reality? Even advance salting will not be a needed first step. I see it extra as a safeguard in opposition to overcooking. It supplies just a little buffer in case you by accident let that chook sit within the oven an additional 15 minutes. So long as you’re very cautious about monitoring your chook, there isn’t any cause to brine or salt it upfront.
That mentioned, it would not harm to take precautions.
The right way to Do It if You So Select
We have put collectively a useful fast and soiled information to brining and dry brining, which lays all of it out intimately.
Let deliciousness, merriment, and household bonding ensue. You could not all be capable to agree on whether or not the cranberries belong within the stuffing or on the aspect, however at the least you possibly can all agree that that is one darn tasty chook.

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