A/C: plane

Advert-hoc constitution: hiring an A/C to cowl a niche in a fleet – for instance, attributable to issues with Rolls-Royce Trent engines fitted to Boeing 787s.

Wamos and Hello-Fly are among the many long-haul suppliers of ad-hoc planes, Titan and Germania among the many short-hauls. See additionally damp/dry/moist leasing.

AOG: Plane On Floor. The A/C is damaged and gained’t be going wherever in a rush.

APD: Air Passenger Responsibility, the tax of no less than £13 payable by anybody aged two or above on a flight from a UK airport. From April 2019, the long-haul price for passengers in something aside from economic system class rises from £156 to £172; for economic system travellers it stays at £78. 

Be part of Unbiased Minds
For unique articles, occasions and an advertising-free learn for simply
£5.99
€6.99
$9.99
a month
Begin your free trial

Get the most effective of The Unbiased
With an Unbiased Minds subscription for simply
£5.99
€6.99
$9.99
a month
Begin your free trial

Get the most effective of The Unbiased
With out the adverts – for simply
£5.99
€6.99
$9.99
a month
Begin your free trial

Arrival time: in response to the EU, the time at which the flight reaches the gate and no less than one of many doorways is open. That is the definition used for the needs of claiming compensation.

Learn extra

Bumping: denying boarding to passengers with confirmed reservations who flip up on time for the flight on which they’re booked. This sometimes occurs when an airline has bought extra seats for a flight than there are on the plane, on the premise that some passengers will nearly actually fail to show up. In lots of areas, together with the European Union and the US, passengers are entitled to compensation for overbooking.

Provider Imposed Cost: nothing to do with governments or airports, however a price that British Airways, Virgin Atlantic and different airways apply to attempt to make additional money. Its origins lie with the sharply rising value of gasoline within the early years of the 21st century. Airways imposed gasoline surcharges as a means of claiming, mainly: “We’ve put our fares up but it surely’s not our fault.”

Nonetheless, there was a second, extra vital impact: anybody redeeming frequent flyer factors needed to pay the surcharge, which devalued their factors and elevated airline earnings. Even when gasoline costs subsided, carriers saved these surcharges in place. Not like different taxes, there may be typically no proper to a refund if you don’t journey.

Civil Aviation Authority (CAA): the UK regulator for air journey.

Cabotage: the precise a overseas airline has to fly passengers domestically, eg easyJet between Paris and Good, Ryanair between Rome and Catania.

Home bliss: easyJet has a busy community of inner flights in a number of European international locations (Simon Calder)

Canx: cancelled, often referring to a flight

Chapter 11: additionally recognized, disparagingly, because the “carwash”. A type of chapter beforehand fashionable amongst US airways which gives an organization with safety towards collectors whereas on the similar time permitting it to proceed to commerce. Airways renegotiate with employees and suppliers to cut back the associated fee base.

Lessons: the primary and most evident that means is the division of an plane into completely different cabins. Whereas many low-cost airways are one-class solely, on many BA long-haul flights there are 4 passenger lessons: World Traveller (economic system), World Traveller Plus (premium economic system), Membership World (enterprise class) and First. The widely accepted letters to explain these are Y, W, J and F. Much less clearly, particular person cabins are divided into lessons for the needs of promoting. For instance, “economic system gentle” on Virgin Atlantic is classed as T.

Codesharing: an association that enables airways to use their very own two-letter IATA code (eg AF for Air France, BA for British Airways, VS for Virgin Atlantic) to a different airline’s flight. In actuality it’s the plane that’s shared, not the code. As an excessive instance which fits into double figures, the morning KLM flight from Paris CDG to Amsterdam is shared with Jet Airways, Air France, Czech Airways, Delta, Gol (Brazil), Garuda Indonesia, Kuwait Airways, Xiamen Airways (China), China Jap and Vietnam Airways.  

This allows airways to boast of a wider route community, and provide extra flight prospects, than they may in any other case do.

BA says codesharing “gives a easy, handy and clear service that will increase buyer selection”.

Damp lease: one in every of three types of leasing to cowl operations, often long term than ad-hoc charters. With a humid lease, you lease the airplane and the pilots, and provide your personal cabin crew. A moist lease means the cabin crew comes too; it its often known as ACMI, quick for “plane, crew, upkeep and insurance coverage”. Dry leasing means you merely lease the airplane (like automotive rent) and provide your personal personnel.

Direct flight: you journey in the identical airplane to your vacation spot however don’t essentially go continuous. Air New Zealand’s every day departure from Heathrow to Auckland is direct, however not continuous (it refuels in Los Angeles). The identical applies to British Airways to Sydney (by way of Singapore) and EVA Air to Taipei (by way of Bangkok).

Direct line: Air New Zealand refuelling at Los Angeles between Heathrow and Auckland (Getty Photos)

Etops: Prolonged Twin-engine Operations over water, the concession that enables a airplane with two engines to take a route that’s greater than an hour’s flying time (with just one engine working) from an acceptable diversion airport. This permits plane to fly straighter, faster and cheaper programs. The longest Etops allowance is 370 minutes (six hours, 10 minutes), authorized for the Airbus A350. The one a part of the planet from which suitably outfitted plane are excluded is a small patch of Antactica.

EU261 (or, extra accurately, EC261): the European air passengers’ rights guidelines which specify obligations for airways within the occasion of cancellations, overbooking and lengthy delays. The laws apply to all flights from EU airports, and flights from airports exterior Europe that are operated by EU carriers.

The principles are cut up into an obligation of care which is compulsory whatever the trigger, and money compensation of between €250 and €600 when the airline has brought about the issue.

Extraordinary circumstances: the one excuse for not paying compensation – sometimes unhealthy climate, air-traffic management restrictions or safety points. 

Fifth-freedom: the precise, beneath the 1944 Chicago Conference on worldwide air journey, for an airline to fly between two factors, neither of which is in its residence nation. Examples: Ryanair (of Eire) flying from Manchester to Naples, easyJet Europe (of Austria) connecting Amsterdam and Barcelona and Wizz Air (of Hungary) linking Luton and Tel Aviv. All airways from EU member states take pleasure in computerized fifth-freedom rights inside the Union.

All aboard: Wizz Air Airbus jet at Luton Airport (Simon Calder)

FOP: type of fee. Bank card gives the utmost safety; money the least.

GDS: world distribution system, of which Amadeus, Sabre and Travelport are by far the market leaders. They supply the interface between particular person airways’ reservations methods and journey brokers. Moreover flights, additionally they deal with automotive rental and lodging.

Grandfather rights: at slot-constrained airports, of which Heathrow and Gatwick are essentially the most excessive examples worldwide, the entitlement to proceed to fly a route – or to promote the slots.

HAG: have a go. A time period utilized by check-in workers for a passenger who arrives after the check-in deadline however is permitted to attempt to get to the gate in time to catch the airplane. Very uncommon today.

Hotac: lodge lodging.

IATA: Worldwide Air Transport Affiliation, the airways’ commerce affiliation. Headquartered in Montreal.

ICAO: Worldwide Civil Aviation Organisation, the UN physique that regulates world aviation (and strays into areas resembling the scale and suppleness of passports). Additionally headquartered in Montreal.

IRROPS: “irregular operations,” resembling issues attributable to WX (poor climate) or an AOG (plane on floor). 

LAGs: liquids, aerosols and gels, which can’t be carried in cabin baggage in portions above 100ml. Time period might embody meals resembling cheese.

Legacy airline: a conventional provider, resembling British Airways, Lufthansa or Qantas, which pre-dates the “no-frills revolution”. They typically get pleasure from a long-established route community, and the slots concerned, however the drawback of employment preparations negotiated when airways have been capable of get away with charging absurd fares and operating inefficient operations.

Toronto airport gate agent does dance routine to sign airplane take-off

Load issue: the proportion of seats on an plane stuffed by fare-paying passengers. If 162 out of 180 seats on an Airbus A320 are occupied by individuals who have paid for the seats (versus airline workers, freeloading journalists and so on), then the load issue is 90 per cent. Whereas load elements have been sometimes within the 70-75 per cent vary a technology in the past, at present airways attempt for 90-95 per cent. However these figures typically embody no-shows.

Locator: the code of six letters and numbers (typically seven) that identifies your reserving in an airline’s reservations pc. Additionally referred to as a PNR (passenger title report). In an period when paper tickets are fortunately historical past, holding a report of the PNR might be very helpful. And should you don’t have a PNR for a web based reserving, there’s an opportunity the acquisition hasn’t gone by means of.

MCT: minimal connecting time. An airline’s or airport’s stipulation of the least time you must go away between your scheduled arrival and the departure of your connecting flight. At small airports, notably in Scandinavia, it may be as little as 10 minutes. Even at large Frankfurt the utmost MCT is 45 minutes, whether or not you’re flying internationally or domestically. However as soon as a number of terminals become involved, MCTs prolong tiresomely. Between Heathrow Terminals four and 5, MCT is 1 hour 45 minutes; some connections in Madrid’s absurdly strung-out airport are 2 hours 45 minutes. 

Solely join: passengers are assured they’ll change planes inside 50 minutes (REUTERS)

If you happen to don’t thoughts taking a threat, then you possibly can organize “self-connects” which undercut the MCT – for instance reserving a flight from Milan Malpensa Terminal 2 which departs in lower than the stipulated 90 minutes margin. But when it goes Tango Uniform due to a delay with the primary flight, you lose. Not advisable when you’ve got checked baggage.

Community provider: an airline resembling Air France, British Airways or Lufthansa that operates a variety of flights from a number of hubs (Paris, Heathrow, Frankfurt) and presents connecting flights on this community. Largely synonymous with legacy carriers.

NDC: New Distribution Functionality, the usual developed by IATA to rework communication between airways and journey brokers. The airline business needs to supply greater than merely a seat from A to B, as an alternative providing a extra personalised product – probably with personalised costs – and NDC is the communications protocol that enables this.

No-show: should you fail to succeed in the check-in desk earlier than the deadline stipulated by the airline, or aren’t on the boarding gate in time, then you’re classed as a no-show. On “legacy” airways you’ll sometimes have the remainder of your itinerary cancelled with out discover or compensation. On most no-frills fares you lose the cash paid for the flight. Theoretically you possibly can apply for a refund for taxes and prices, however the course of is typically made so tough that folks not often hassle.

Open jaw: flying out to 1 airport and again from one other. It is a risk of which many passengers appear unaware. For instance on a visit round Australia, the worst answer is to guide a return ticket to Sydney, the furthest huge metropolis. Much better to, say, guide outbound to Sydney and inbound from Perth – to keep away from doubling again. Any sort of fly-drive journey, eg San Francisco-Los Angeles, can profit from an open-jaw ticket, and on many routes there is not going to be a rise within the fare.

Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner used between Heathrow and Perth (Qantas)

Operational difficulties: meaningless excuse for no matter has gone flawed this time.

Oversold: overbooked, ie promoting extra seats for a flight than the quantity the airplane truly holds. Frequent observe in aviation, due to the massive variety of no-shows.

Pushback: the second at which your plane begins to be pushed again from the stand by a tug, formally the departure time of the flight. At some smaller airports, there could also be no have to push again as a result of the plane continues the vast flip with which it arrived.

Quad S: a sign in your boarding go with the abbreviation SSSS which implies Secondary Safety Screening Choice – an additional layer of safety at US airports. Passengers on secret watch lists, or who booked very late for a flight, or paid money, or whose journey historical past is of curiosity, might discover themselves experiencing additional pat-down searches or looking out interviews on the departure gate.

Reprotect: switch to a different airline, often within the occasion of IRROPS resembling a mechanical failure or a scheduling change. Carriers are sometimes reluctant to do that, however the CAA is insisting they do in lots of instances.

Help free-thinking journalism and subscribe to Unbiased Minds

Seat pitch: the gap between the entrance of 1 seat and the entrance of the following, often measured in inches. On British Airways and Virgin Atlantic flights in economic system it’s typically 30-31 inches; on some short-haul flights it may be much less. 

Self-loading cargo: pejorative time period for passengers (typically additionally SLF, for “self-loading freight”).

Brief-shipped: baggage not shipped in any respect (ie left behind on the departure airport)

Slot: permission to land and take off from an airport at a particular time. Could also be used to explain a long-term idea (eg Qantas has slots at Heathrow to function every day flights to and from Melbourne and Sydney) or an on-the-day restriction. The captain of a Jet2 flight from Manchester to Malaga might say, “Now we have a slot to be airborne at 9.47, so we’ll wait on the gate somewhat longer.”

Standby: within the latter a part of the 20th century, this was the optimum technique to discover low-cost long-haul flights. Airways bought empty seats shortly earlier than departure for means under the traditional costs – eg £100 one-way from London to New York within the days when that type of fare was unknown – although even as soon as onboard, it was potential to be tapped on the shoulder simply earlier than take off and requested to give up your seat to a full-fare paying government.

These days, “standby” refers solely to potential passengers who’re waitlisted for an apparently fully-booked flight, and are hoping for no-shows.

Standing: if you’re waitlisted, your standing will probably be proven as WL. In case you are confirmed, it should say OK or HK. However that doesn’t imply you’re assured a seat, for the reason that flight could also be oversold.

Tango uniform: not in nice form, usually used within the sense “it’s gone tango uniform” to explain a newly bankrupt airline or, much less severely, a missed connection.

Operational difficulties: crowds at Gatwick through the drone disruption (PA)

Taxes: precise taxes resembling Air Passenger Responsibility, plus an entire vary of prices from to the per-passenger dealing with price charged by the airport. 

UTC: Coordinated Common Time, congruent with Greenwich Imply Time, by which all airways’ operations are calibrated. Occasions on schedules are proven in native time all through.

VAT: Worth Added Tax. Not payable on air fares to, from or inside the UK, although many environmental campaigners say it needs to be, since air journey isn’t an important.

White tails: plane which were constructed with out a particular buyer. Additionally planes that present no proprietor on the tail however that are employed in to cowl plane shortfalls by airways.

WX: climate; amongst pilots, used for routine forecasts; extra extensively, implying poor climate which has disrupted operations.

Goal observe: some inconvenient WX predicted for the southeast USA (NOAA)

Yield: the quantity paid by passengers. Many transatlantic flights between London and New York are very excessive yield, whereas companies from the UK to Australia are usually low yield. 

Z: a quoted time that’s in UTC versus native time. For instance the ultimate Air Canada Toronto-Heathrow flight of the evening leaves at 2355 native time, which is 0455 the next day.